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Diabetes Dictionary: P - T
The words are listed in alphabetical order. Some words have many meanings; only those meanings that relate to diabetes are included. Words that appear in bold italic are defined elsewhere in the dictionary. A term will refer the reader to another definition only when the second definition gives additional information about a topic that is directly related to the first term.
Information in this dictionary is not a substitute for your health care professional's advice.
A B C D E F G H I J K L
an organ that makes insulin and enzymes for digestion. The pancreas is located behind the lower part of the stomach and is about the size of a hand.
a surgical procedure to take a healthy whole or partial pancreas from a donor and place it into a person with diabetes.
pediatric (pee-dee-AT-rik) endocrinologist (en-doh-krih-NAH-luh-jist):
a doctor who treats children who have endocrine gland problems such as diabetes.
a health care professional who specializes in fitting shoes for people with disabilities or deformities. A pedorthist can custom-make shoes or orthotics (special inserts for shoes).
periodontal (PER-ee-oh-DON-tul) disease:
disease of the gums.
a dentist who specializes in treating people who have gum diseases.
peripheral (puh-RIF-uh-rul) neuropathy (ne-ROP-uh-thee):
nerve damage that affects the feet, legs, or hands. Peripheral neuropathy causes pain, numbness, or a tingling feeling.
peripheral (puh-RIF-uh-rul) vascular (VAS-kyoo-ler) disease (PVD):
a disease of the large blood vessels of the arms, legs, and feet. PVD may occur when major blood vessels in these areas are blocked and do not receive enough blood. The signs of PVD are aching pains and slow-healing foot sores.
a health care professional who prepares and distributes medicine to people. Pharmacists also give information on medicines.
a treatment for diabetic retinopathy. A strong beam of light (laser) is used to seal off bleeding blood vessels in the eye and to burn away extra blood vessels that should not have grown there.
an oral medicine used to treat type 2 diabetes. It helps insulin take glucose from the blood into the cells for energy by making cells more sensitive to insulin. Belongs to the class of medicines called thiazolidinediones. (Brand name: Actos.)
a doctor who treats people who have foot problems. Podiatrists also help people keep their feet healthy by providing regular foot examinations and treatment.
the care and treatment of feet.
a meal planning system that uses points to rate the caloric content of foods.
excessive thirst; may be a sign of diabetes.
excessive hunger; may be a sign of diabetes.
excessive urination; may be a sign of diabetes.
postprandial (post-PRAN-dee-ul) blood glucose:
the blood glucose level taken 1 to 2 hours after eating.
a condition in which blood glucose levels are higher than normal but are not high enough for a diagnosis of diabetes. People with pre-diabetes are at increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes and for heart disease and stroke. Other names for pre-diabetes are impaired glucose tolerance and impaired fasting glucose.
a commercially produced combination of two different types of insulin. See 50/50 insulin and 70/30 insulin.
preprandial (pree-PRAN-dee-ul) blood glucose:
the blood glucose level taken before eating.
the number of people in a given group or population who are reported to have a disease.
the substance made first in the pancreas and then broken into several pieces to become insulin.
proliferative (pro-LIH-fur-ah-tiv) retinopathy (REH-tih-NOP-uh-thee):
a condition in which fragile new blood vessels grow along the retina and in the vitreous humor of the eye.
a man-made substitute for a missing body part such as an arm or a leg.
1. One of the three main nutrients in food. Foods that provide protein include meat, poultry, fish, cheese, milk, dairy products, eggs, and dried beans. 2. Proteins are also used in the body for cell structure, hormones such as insulin, and other functions.
the presence of protein in the urine, indicating that the kidneys are not working properly.
see insulin pump.[Top]
a type of insulin that starts to lower blood glucose within 5 to 10 minutes after injection and has its strongest effect 30 minutes to 3 hours after injection, depending on the type used. See aspart insulin and lispro insulin.
rebound hyperglycemia (HY-per-gly-SEE-mee-ah):
a swing to a high level of glucose in the blood after a low level. See Somogyi effect.
see insulin receptors.
Recognized Diabetes Education Programs:
diabetes self-management education programs that are approved by the American Diabetes Association.
short-acting insulin. On average, regular insulin starts to lower blood glucose within 30 minutes after injection. It has its strongest effect 2 to 5 hours after injection but keeps working 5 to 8 hours after injection. Also called R insulin.
having to do with the kidneys. A renal disease is a disease of the kidneys. Renal failure means the kidneys have stopped working.
renal threshold (THRESH-hold) of glucose:
the blood glucose concentration at which the kidneys start to excrete glucose into the urine.
an oral medicine used to treat type 2 diabetes. It lowers blood glucose by helping the pancreas make more insulin right after meals. Belongs to the class of medicines called meglitinides. (Brand name: Prandin.)
the light-sensitive layer of tissue that lines the back of the eye.
see background retinopathy, proliferative retinopathy, and diabetic retinopathy.
anything that raises the chances of a person developing a disease.
an oral medicine used to treat type 2 diabetes. It helps insulin take glucose from the blood into the cells for energy by making cells more sensitive to insulin. Belongs to the class of medicines called thiazolidinediones. (Brand name: Avandia.)[Top]
a sweetener with no calories and no nutritional value.
a type of diabetes caused by another disease or certain drugs or chemicals.
in diabetes, the ongoing process of managing diabetes. Includes meal planning, planned physical activity, blood glucose monitoring, taking diabetes medicines, handling episodes of illness and of low and high blood glucose, managing diabetes when traveling, and more. The person with diabetes designs his or her own self-management treatment plan in consultation with a variety of health care professionals such as doctors, nurses, dietitians, pharmacists, and others.
premixed insulin that is 70 percent intermediate-acting (NPH) insulin and 30 percent short-acting (regular) insulin.
a container for disposal of used needles and syringes; often made of hard plastic so that needles cannot poke through.
a type of insulin that starts to lower blood glucose within 30 minutes after injection and has its strongest effect 2 to 5 hours after injection. See regular insulin.
the unintended action(s) of a drug.
a set of instructions for adjusting insulin on the basis of blood glucose test results, meals, or activity levels.
Somogyi (suh-MOH-jee) effect, also called rebound hyperglycemia:
when the blood glucose level swings high following hypoglycemia. The Somogyi effect may follow an untreated hypoglycemic episode during the night and is caused by the release of stress hormones.
1. A sugar alcohol (sweetener) with 4 calories per gram. 2. A substance produced by the body in people with diabetes that can cause damage to the eyes and nerves.
split mixed dose:
division of a prescribed daily dose of insulin into two or more injections given over the course of the day.
another name for carbohydrate, one of the three main nutrients in food.
condition caused by damage to blood vessels in the brain; may cause loss of ability to speak or to move parts of the body.
subcutaneous (sub-kyoo-TAY-nee-us) injection:
putting a fluid into the tissue under the skin with a needle and syringe.
a sweetener made from sugar but with no calories and no nutritional value.
a two-part sugar made of glucose and fructose. Known as table sugar or white sugar, it is found naturally in sugar cane and in beets.
1. A class of carbohydrates with a sweet taste; includes glucose, fructose, and sucrose. 2. A term used to refer to blood glucose.
sweeteners that produce a smaller rise in blood glucose than other carbohydrates. Their calorie content is about 2 calories per gram. Includes erythritol, hydrogenated starch hydrolysates, isomalt, lactitol, maltitol, mannitol, sorbitol, and xylitol. Also known as polyols (PAH-lee-alls.)
former term for diabetes mellitus.
a class of oral medicine for type 2 diabetes that lowers blood glucose by helping the pancreas make more insulin and by helping the body better use the insulin it makes. (Generic names: acetohexamide, chlorpropamide, glimepiride, glipizide, glyburide, tolazamide, tolbutamide.)
see insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome.
a device used to inject medications or other liquids into body tissues. The syringe for insulin has a hollow plastic tube with a plunger inside and a needle on the end.[Top]
a diabetes treatment approach in which medical care is provided by a team of health care professionals including a doctor, a dietitian, a nurse, a diabetes educator, and others. The team act as advisers to the person with diabetes.
a class of oral medicine for type 2 diabetes that helps insulin take glucose from the blood into the cells for energy by making cells more sensitive to insulin. (Generic names: pioglitazone and rosiglitazone.)
see intensive therapy.
an oral medicine used to treat type 2 diabetes. It lowers blood glucose by helping the pancreas make more insulin and by helping the body better use the insulin it makes. Belongs to the class of medicines called sulfonylureas. (Brand name: Tolinase.)
an oral medicine used to treat type 2 diabetes. It lowers blood glucose by helping the pancreas make more insulin and by helping the body better use the insulin it makes. Belongs to the class of medicines called sulfonylureas. (Brand name: Orinase.)
the storage form of fat in the body. High triglyceride levels may occur when diabetes is out of control.
type 1 diabetes:
a condition characterized by high blood glucose levels caused by a total lack of insulin. Occurs when the body's immune system attacks the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas and destroys them. The pancreas then produces little or no insulin. Type 1 diabetes develops most often in young people but can appear in adults.
type 2 diabetes:
a condition characterized by high blood glucose levels caused by either a lack of insulin or the body's inability to use insulin efficiently. Type 2 diabetes develops most often in middle-aged and older adults but can appear in young people.
type I diabetes:
former term for type 1 diabetes.
type II diabetes:
former term for type 2 diabetes.[Top]
Diabetes Dictionary Index
Pre-Diabetes - The Calm Before the Storm
Remember when the medical world identified pre-hypertension to better monitor your blood pressure? The new buzz: Pre-Diabetes concerns a similar condition pinpointing people who are at severe risk for getting diabetes. Because diabetes silently invades your body, early detection and corrective action are critically important.
Low-Carb: The Role of Insulin
There are three basic units the body uses for energy:1. Fats2.
Pre-Diabetes: Check Engine Warning Light
Your car has an early detection system and so does your body. Take 3 minutes to read this article and learn how you can save yourself a life time of aches, pains, and costly medical bills.
Diabetic Frozen Shoulder. An Explanation of The Frozen Shoulder - Diabetes Connection?
Diabetic frozen shoulder is a major problem. The pain and limited function that it causes can seriously limit the normal activities of day-to-day life.
Diabetes and Fitness
There are two main types of diabetes, type I and type II. Type I diabetes is characterized by the pancreas making too little or no insulin.
Type II Diabetes: Insulin-Dependent Diabetes
The term diabetes refers to higher than normal levels of sugar, or glucose, in the blood. Type II diabetes, also known as insulin-dependent diabetes, was commonly referred to as adult onset diabetes until recently when the name no longer accurately describes the population with this disease.
Diabetes And The Long Term Dangers
Diabetes has hidden dangers that begin before diagnosis and continue to worsen if certain steps are not taken to prevent the complications that are the true, "killers" in terms of diabetes.Statistics show that there are around 18 million diabetics in America, both Type 1 and Type 2.
Diabetes the Silent Killer - The Iceberg Effect!
What sank the "Unsinkable Ship" the Titanic was not the tip of the iceberg, but the lurking 90% percent of the iceberg hidden under the surface. In the movie you see the captain steer the ship clear of the block of ice on top of the water, but underneath not known to the captain, crew or passengers, the razor sharp ice was splitting the steel bottom of the vessel like a stick of melted butter.
Exercising for Diabetes Sufferers
Exercise is often recommended in treating type 1 (insulin- dependent) and type 2 (noninsulin- dependent) diabetes ~ both as a stand-alone activity and in combination with diet and drug therapy. For people who are heavily dependent on medicines, exercise cannot replace drugs but it does contribute to normalizing the glucose metabolism.
Insulin Resistance And Complex Carbohydrates
One of the biggest mistakes that weight loss failures make is cutting out carbs altogether. An example of this flawed ideology is the Atkins diet.
STAT-LET? Auto Safety Lancets - Makes Diabetes Testing Easy!
Stat Medical Hardware, Inc (SMD) was founded in 1988 and is a leader in developing and distributing innovative medical devices. Their emphasis is on lancets, lancing devices and clinical, capillary blood sampling devices.
Type I Diabetes: Insulin-Dependent Diabetes
Type I diabetes is also known as insulin-dependent diabetes or juvenile diabetes. This form of diabetes is mainly found in children.
Exercise & Diabetes
You are no doubt aware that exercise can help prevent the serious complications that often come with diabetes and heart disease. Research has repeatedly shown that regular physical activity helps reduce the likelihood of having a heart attack or a stroke, aids in weight loss, and improves mood.
Gestational diabetes is a temporary condition that occurs during pregnancy. Pregnant women who have never had diabetes before, but who have high blood sugar levels during pregnancy, are said to have gestational diabetes.
Diabetes Symptoms, Causes & Types
Diabetes affects the manner in which the body handles carbohydrates, fats and proteins. If neglected, diabetes can have serious complications.
If You Have Diabetes, You May Be Entitled To No Cost Diabetic Supplies
This article is intended to inform people with diabetes in regards to their diabetic supplies. When I found out that my sister was diagnosed with the disease I started to research more and came across some useful information that might be helpful to others.
Protein Principles for Diabetes
Dietary considerations can present a Hobson's choice in diabetes. Even when the intake is nutritious, assimilating it can be another matter.
Get Rid of Your Diabetes
People at risk of getting the disease drop by a staggering 60 percent if they manage to lose just 10 pounds by following a healthy diet and engage in regular exercise such as walking, according to a report published in the New England Journal of Medicine. (May 3, 2001).
I Have Diabetes or Another Chronic Condition - Should I Use an HSA?
Health Savings Accounts (HSAs) are becoming quite popular for people who are generally healthy. But what about sick people? What about people who have chronic conditions like diabetes, multiple sclerosis or the like? Does an HSA make sense for them?The short answer is yes.
The Profect Solution for Diabetics
Diabetes, which affects more than 6% of the US population or over 18,000,000 people [i], is diagnosed when the body is not creating or effectively utilizing the hormone called insulin. As a result, much-needed energy from sugar, starch, and other sources are not being exploited as effectively as they should.
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